Tumor necrosis factor: An inflammatory microenvironment marker in primary breast cancer patients
Karuvaje Thriveni, Anisha Raju, Girija Ramaswamy, S. Krishnamurthy, Rekha V. Kumar
Department of Biochemistry, Kidwai Cancer Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India1Department of Surgical Oncology, Kidwai Cancer Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, 3Department of Pathology, Kidwai Cancer Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India,
Aim: The present study was planned to analyze plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in invasive ductal primary breast cancer (BC) patients in a South Indian population. TNF alpha (TNF α) and TNF beta (TNF β) are produced during inflammation as proinflammatory cytokine markers. The plasma levels of TNF α and TNF β (lymphotoxin α) were correlated with clinicopathological features of BC. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients before treatment. We analyzed plasma levels of TNF α, and TNF β in 70 female BC cases and 35 age-matched healthy controls using Millipore magnetic bead kits. Results: Plasma TNF α levels in BC cases were significantly elevated (median 10.1 pg/ml) when compared to the control groups. Plasma values of TNF α and TNF β both were significantly elevated in BC patients with hormone receptor negative cases. Plasma TNF α level was elevated in lymph node metastasis and triple negative BC. Plasma values of TNF α inversely correlated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positivity. Conclusion: The plasma levels of TNF α were more significantly overexpressed than TNF β in BC patients. Further, the patients with aggressive cancer had higher levels of inflammation markers. The present study shows that TNF levels were elevated in hormone receptor negative and triple-negative cases.
Keywords: Breast cancer, Inflammation, Tumor necrosis factor